This area broadly describes the interaction of electromagnetic waves with materials to yield useful devices including optical fibers, spintronic memory, and antennas for cell phones.  To that end, faculty in ECE are engaged in research over the full frequency spectrum including light interacting with graphene, the use of fluids for tuning radio frequency circuits, and magnetic disk drives that combine both microwaves and light, both focused to nm length scales. Much of our work is collaborative and interdisciplinary with a strong connection to industry through two industry supported centers: C-SPIN and MINT.  Research includes fabricating devices, measuring their electromagnetic performance, and simulating expected behavior.