Doctoral student Omer Demirel was recently awarded the American Heart Association’s pre-doctoral fellowship for his research titled “Rapid High Resolution Whole Heart Perfusion MRI for Evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease.” The fellowship starts at the beginning of 2020 for an amount of $31,000. It is a competitive national award, and applicants are required to submit a research proposal in the style of an NIH grant proposal.
Omer is a third year student with research interests in image processing, new acquisitions, and reconstruction techniques to address accelerated imaging and robust reconstruction in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). He is working under the guidance of Prof. Mehmet Akçakaya.
Currently, most MRI techniques are limited in their ability to show small structures across the whole heart. While faster imaging methods have been proposed for MRI, they do not yet achieve the desired goals. Under the AHA fellowship, Omer’s goal is to develop new strategies to acquire and generate imaging data using advanced image processing techniques. These will substantially improve what can be seen in a cardiac MRI (CMR) exam by providing high resolution images, thereby improving disease detection. The success of this undertaking will directly impact AHA’s mission to improve heart health, develop better treatment, and reduce fatalities from cardiovascular diseases and stroke.
For Omer, pursuing research in medical imaging seems a natural calling. His mother is a physician in an Istanbul cardiovascular surgery and research hospital, and he has seen the importance of imaging devices in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disorders, close at hand. With coronary artery disease accounting for one in six deaths in the United States, and current gold-standard techniques being invasive, and carrying risks associated with ionizing radiation, Omer feels driven to pursue innovations in the radiation-free non-invasive approach of MRI.
His current undertaking focuses on simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging in CMR for better coverage and higher resolution. In the course of his work, Omer has developed two new reconstruction methods to enhance image quality in different imaging in CMR: a regularized reconstruction technique, and a technique that improves image quality in highly accelerated SMS cine and perfusion imaging. Parts of these techniques were presented at the ISMRM 2019 and EUSIPCO 2019.
Acquiring all the data for an MRI image can be a time-consuming process. Accelerated imaging overcomes this drawback through creating a clinically usable image while acquiring fewer data-points. It also offers the advantage of improved spatio-temporal resolution, which can reveal more details about the underlying image. However, accelerated imaging results in images that suffer from aliasing, slice cross-talk, and noise artifacts, all of which affect image quality. With the aid of the AHA Fellowship, Omer will tackle this challenging task by improving both the acquisition and reconstruction of highly accelerated SMS CMR. On the acquisition side, he aims to implement outer volume suppression methods to reduce unwanted signals around the heart, such as chest and back fat, that may lead to artifacts in accelerated imaging. On the reconstruction side, he is addressing the shortcomings of existing methods, which cannot reduce noise and slice cross-talk at the same time, by developing new algorithms that reduce these possible artifacts simultaneously.
Omer Burak Demirel is the recipient of multiple travel awards and fellowships including the Gary H. Glover Fellowship, and the Bruce J. Bergman Graduate Fellowship. His web site offers more information about his research, and publications.
ECE alumnus Tong Zhang was recently elevated to IEEE Fellow effective January 2020, for his “contributions to system design and VLSI implementation for data storage.” Tong’s research focuses on computer system design, emphasizing data-centric heterogeneous computing. Guided by real life applications, his work has spanned computer architecture, memory and data storage, VLSI signal processing, error correction coding, digital communication, and multimedia processing. His contributions to the field include his service as Associate Editor for the ACM Transactions on Storage, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems – II, and IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.
Tong earned his doctoral degree in electrical engineering from the University of Minnesota Twin Cities in 2002 under the guidance of Prof. Keshab Parhi. He then joined the faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute as a tenure-track assistant professor in 2002, and rose to become full professor in 2013.
The grade of Fellow, the highest membership grade, is conferred by the IEEE Board of Directors on individuals with an outstanding record of accomplishments in an IEEE field of interest. Fewer than one-tenth of one percent of the total number of voting members are elevated as Fellows. The grade is recognized by the technical community as a prestigious honor and an important career achievement.
Alumna Mona Ebrish was selected to attend the 2019 NextProf Nexus workshop hosted at Georgia Tech University in Atlanta in early October. The three-day workshop is designed to diversify the next generation of academic leaders in engineering, and give participants the opportunity to explore and prepare for faculty positions in academia.
Mona earned her doctoral degree in 2015 under the guidance of Prof. Steven Koester. Her graduate research focused on graphene, the two-dimensional form of carbon. Her dissertation titled “Graphene Quantum Capacitance Varactors,” is a study of the fundamental properties of the material and its use for biological sensing applications.
After graduation, Mona joined IBM at their research and development facility in Albany, NY, and worked on projects related to current or near-future technologies for IBM servers. She recently received the prestigious National Research Council fellowship, under the aegis of which she is pursuing a post-doctoral position at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington DC. During the term of her fellowship, Mona will be working on semiconductor materials with larger energy gap as compared to graphene, to be used in high voltage power applications.
The NextProf Nexus workshop hosts a select cohort of diverse engineering doctoral students, recent doctoral graduates, postdoctoral researchers or early-career scientists and researchers, and top faculty and deans from around the country. The event encourages traditionally underrepresented U.S. demographic groups to participate in academic careers.
McKnight Presidential Endowed Chair Professor Georgios B. Giannakis has been named a Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors. Election to NAI Fellow is the highest professional distinction conferred solely on academic inventors. The 2019 class of Fellows has 168 prolific academic inventors from across the world. The Fellows Program calls attention to academic inventors “who have demonstrated a spirit of innovation in creating or facilitating outstanding inventions that have made a tangible impact on quality of life, economic development and the welfare of society.”
Georgios is a renowned, field-shaping engineer and scientist best known for his contributions to the fundamental understanding of signal processing, wireless communications, networking, and data science. He leads a research team whose work has had significant impact on a variety of technologically important fields, including the Internet of Things, social, brain, and power networks with renewables.
Georgios holds over 32 U.S. and foreign wireless communications patents, several of them related to the 4G LTE standard, signal processing, and power systems. He has authored and co-authored more than 450 journal, and more than 750 conference publications, 25 book chapters, two books, and two research monographs (the latter are marked by 73,000 Google Scholar citations and an h-index 143). He is the recipient of 10 best journal paper awards from the IEEE Signal Processing SP, and Communications Societies (papers were authored by multiple researchers), technical achievement awards, the IEEE Fourier Technical Field Award, and the IEEE Communications Society Education Award.
Over the years, Georgios has led more than 65 sponsored projects with funding in excess of $17 million. He has mentored 50 doctoral students and 25 postdoctoral researchers,all of whom are currently pursuing illustrious careers in industry, academia, and government labs.
The 2019 NAI Fellows will be inducted to NAI in the annual NAI meeting on April 8-10, 2020 at The Heard Museum in Phoenix, AZ.
In more recent news, Georgios has also been selected for the 2019 IEEE SPS Norbert Wiener Society Award for fundamental contributions to statistical signal processing, especially for networking and communications, and for outstanding mentoring of young researchers. The award will be presented at ICASSP 2020 (International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing) to be held in Barcelona, Spain in early May.
Georgios earned his master’s degree in electrical engineering and mathematics from the University of Southern California (USC), and his doctoral degree in electrical engineering from USC in 1986. He began teaching at the University of Virginia in 1987, rising from assistant to full professor by 1998. In 1999, he moved to the University of Minnesota and currently directs the Digital Technology Center (since 2008). Since 2016 he has also held the McKnight Presidential Chair in ECE.
Prof. Tony Low has been included in the 2019 global list of Highly Cited Researchers, compiled by the Web of Science Group. According to the Group, the compilation “identifies scientists and social scientists who have demonstrated significant influence through publication of multiple papers, highly cited by their peers, during the last decade.” The Methodology section on the Group’s web site offers details on the selection criteria, and what inclusion on the list means for researchers. Professors Christopher Cramer (University of Minnesota Vice President for Research) and Donald Truhlar (Regents Professor) from the Department of Chemistry have also been recognized in the list.
Tony is the recipient of several awards that recognize his work and its far-reaching impact. These include: the University’s McKnight Presidential Fellowship (2019), IBM Pat Goldberg Memorial Best Paper Award (2014), IBM Invention Award (2013), KITP Rice Family Fund Fellowship (2012), Singapore Millennium Fellowship (2007), and the IEEE Electron Device Society Fellowship (2005).
ECE alumni are scattered across the globe working to make the world a better and safer place, and it is not unusual to hear news of their accomplishments. Yet, it is always a delight when news floats back to us about their specific triumphs, and to see their name and their work being lauded in public fora for the world to see. One such alumnus is Eric Rutayisire.
For a young CEO running an even younger fast growing company, time is obviously at a premium. But we did get a chance to connect with Eric and learn about his motivation to set up Charis UAS, and his vision for the future of his company.
Q: Tell us about your background and what brought you to the University of Minnesota? I am the youngest of 8 siblings, born in Kinshasa, DRC, of Rwandan parents who had taken refuge there due to the genocide against the Tutsis that was happening then. I finished my high school in Rwanda, then moved to the US to further my studies in electrical engineering. I started in Seattle, but when I found out about the engineering program at the University of Minnesota, and the opportunities it offered, I thought it was a good fit for me, and I transferred.
Q: Since earning your MS degree in electrical engineering in 2015, you have returned to Rwanda. Tell us what you are doing now. I am the CEO of Charis UAS, the first drone company in Rwanda. Charis specializes in understanding our customers’ needs and does a system integration around drone technology to answer their needs. So we serve customers in disparate sectors ranging from health to construction, and mining to agriculture.
Q: Why Charis and why Rwanda? I always wanted to do something for my country. The idea for Charis came when I was in the mentorship program at the University. I was paired with a mentor who was a drone technology hobbyist. So we started working together and built the first few drones which kick started our company. The deeper I dove into the technology, the more apparent it became to me that there was immense opportunity for it, and we have been providing more and more solutions since then.
Q: Building the company probably meant a lot of sacrifices. And it’s hard to get potential customers to take you seriously. Tell us about your experience building Charis UAS. It was hard to build a company at a very young age because people wouldn’t take us seriously, and we lacked funding at that early stage. So I used my tax refunds while still at school to kickstart operations. Once we started providing solutions for free and people started seeing the value, we started attracting many more customers who had confidence in the service we could provide. Charis began to gain traction in the market when we introduced our mapping solutions. And it didn’t hurt that we had a meeting with the President of Rwanda, His Excellency Paul Kagame; that made people really sit up and take notice.
Q: How has Charis UAS grown now? Charis now has 18 full time employees, operating in 5 countries and still growing. We are expanding our services around Africa and that’s our focus for now.
Q: Has your experience as a student at the University, and in ECE been formative in any way? It was through CSE’s mentorship program that I met a mentor who inspired me and guided me in the right direction. Without that experience, I am not sure I would have ventured into drone technology.
ECE provided me with a solid foundation. I was challenged to develop critical thinking skills, and was taught how to acquire and research information I needed to accomplish a difficult and unfamiliar task. That has helped me become who I am today and I am grateful for the training I received from the department.
As for us in ECE, we proudly watch alumnus Eric Rutayisire go from strength to strength, and wish him success in his endeavors.
The well deserved award recognizes Georgios’ influential educational tools in the field of signal processing, his dedication to supporting his students, excellence in the classroom, and overall contributions to his field of expertise through monographs, papers, committee and other service responsibilities.
Georgios is a keen advisor and mentor to his students, committed to helping them navigate graduate level academics and all the accompanying complexities in ways that have made them successful students as well as professionals. Reflecting on the impact of his dedication to and enthusiasm for his craft, one of Georgios’ PhD graduates, Prof. Shengli Zhou (currently a faculty at the University of Connecticut) says: “[He] inspired me to pursue an academic [career] path, turning an undecided student into a motivated faculty member, with him as my model for a researcher and teacher.”
In his tenure as a professor over the last 28 years, Georgios has awarded 50 doctoral degrees, including 12 women and four Arican Americans. All his graduates are pursuing successful careers in academia, government labs, and industry in the areas of wireless communications, networking, power systems, and data science. 30 out of his 50 students are now faculty members at high ranking universities across the country and abroad (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Georgia Tech., University of Texas – Austin, Virginia Tech, Shanghai Tech and IIT, India are just a few of them),15 of them are high ranking industry professionals (Sanyogita Shamsunder, vice-president of 5G labs and Innovation at Verizon to name just one), and 5 of them are scientists at government labs such as National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), NRL (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory), and Naval Information Warfare Systems Command (NAVWAR).
He is deeply engaged in guiding his students not only in the actual research process, but also everything that surrounds research: communicating ideas and results, presenting them to a diverse audience, writing, revising, and editing journal articles, seeking funding opportunities and preparing appropriate proposals for these opportunities. Bearing testimony to his work as a teacher and mentor are the 9 journal papers and conference paper awards that that his graduate student co-authors have won. In fact, 15 of his students are IEEE Fellows and of those who went on to pursue careers in academia, 15 are recipients of NSF CAREER awards.
Georgios has also generously devoted his time to giving tutorial presentations at numerous flagship conferences worldwide. Some of these include the 2018 IEEE GLOBECOM, BigDat 2017, CAMSAP, and EUSIPCO to name a few. He has also served as a member of the steering committee of IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, inaugural chair of the IEEE Technical Committee for Signal Processing In Communications, IEEE Distinguished Lecturer (2006-2008), and delivered over a 100 keynote and plenary speeches. He has also led other service responsibilities as editor, member, secretary, chair and co-chair of many IEEE boards, groups, and committees, as well as non-IEEE committees, and agencies. Additionally, he has co-authored two influential and widely taught research monographs, and 25 book chapters.
Georgios is the recipient of several awards and honors in recognition of his scientific, teaching, and service contributions. These include the IEEE Fourier Award for Signal Processing (2015), the IEEE Signal Processing Society Technical Achievement Award (2001), and the EURASIP Technical Achievement Award (2008). He currently holds an ADC Endowed Chair in Wireless Telecommunications (since 2001), and is a recipient of the McKnight Presidential Chair from the University of Minnesota, one of the University’s highest honors.
The 2019 IEEE Communications Society Education Award will be presented at GLOBECOM 2019 slated to be held in Waikoloa, Hawaii in December. The award comprises a plaque, certificate, and an honorarium.
Georgios earned his master’s degree in electrical engineering and mathematics from the University of Southern California (USC), and his doctoral degree in electrical engineering from USC in 1986. He began teaching at the University of Virginia in 1987, rising from assistant to full professor by 1998. In 1999, he moved to the University of Minnesota and currently directs the Digital Technology Center (since 2008).
The isolation of atomically thin 2D graphene ten years ago introduced us to an entire family of truly 2D atomic layered materials with a wide range of electrical and optical properties, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, black phosphorus, and boron nitride, among many others. In recent years, we have learned that the mere stacking of just two such atomic layers can drastically alter its electronic properties, from turning on and off its piezoelectricity and nonlinear optical response, to emerging superconductivity, and functional properties such as magnetism and ferroelectricity. Indicating the enormous potential of such stacking, Prof. Tony Low says, “The opportunities for materials science and engineering are huge with 2D materials heterostructures.
However, stacking these 2D layers to assess their specific properties is no small matter. There are about 1000 different 2D materials that can be accessed experimentally, and simply the lowest energy configuration stacking of these 2D atomic layers into bilayers will lead to a million possible heterostructures. The permutations would become incomprehensible if we consider trilayers, teralayers, and beyond. State-of-the-art materials computation tools allow for the evaluation of the properties of a given 2D stack typically in a matter of hours. However, scanning through all these different permutations would be near impossible even with the most powerful computers.
THE ROLE OF MACHINE LEARNING
To bring the goal of evaluating these 2D layers within reach, the research team has turned to machine learning. Much like how artificial intelligence can one day potentially drive the car to its destination, machine learning tools can be employed to guide progressive materials computation towards a specific goal, such as perfect light absorption in the visible spectrum, and giant piezoelectricity.
To put the team’s endeavor in perspective, 50 years ago at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech, physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman posed : What could we do with layered structures with just the right layers? What would the properties of materials be if we could really arrange the atoms the way we want? […] I can hardly doubt that when we have some control of the arrangement of things on a small scale we will get an enormously greater range of possible properties that substances can have, and of different things that we can do.” With this NSF grant, the researchers are closer to bringing Feynman’s vision to reality.
To reach the goal, the team comprises experts in data science and the application of machine learning, materials modeling of 2D materials, molecular beam epitaxial growth of 2D heterostructures, and materials and device characterization. The successful demonstration of these new designer 2D heterostructures will usher in a new era of efficient and purposeful materials design methodology.
The Division of Materials Research (DMR) awards are designed to expand the understanding of “electronic, atomic, and molecular mechanisms and processes that govern nanoscale to macroscale properties; manipulation and control of these properties; discovery of emerging phenomena of matter and materials; and creation of novel design, synthesis, and processing strategies that lead to new materials with unique characteristics. These discoveries and advancements transcend traditional scientific and engineering disciplines. The Division supports research and education activities in the United States through funding of individual investigators, teams, centers, facilities, and instrumentation. Projects supported by DMR are essential for the development of future technologies and industries that meet societal needs, as well preparation of the next generation of materials researchers.”
David Orser joined ECE in 2016 as a teaching faculty hired to breathe new life into the laboratory experience of our degree curricula. He has been instrumental in introducing some substantive changes that have since shaped our students’ engagement with the hands-on parts of their ECE coursework. Project-based experiential learning can make complex concepts more accessible, and our students are reaping the benefits of our newly refreshed labs.
We recently had the opportunity to catch up with David and learn about his journey to ECE, his experience as a mentor, and his advice for students interested in robotics.
Tell us about your educational background and what brought you to the University. I graduated from Minnesota State University with a BSEE degree and started working for IBM developing custom chips for fiber optic networks. For the next ten years, I continued to develop cutting-edge custom mixed-signal chips while raising a family and finishing my Master’s Degree from the University of Minnesota through the UNITE program. Having always felt a call to teach, I decided to return to the University to earn a doctoral degree. I chose to shift fields slightly from microelectronics to power electronics, to expand my horizons. Over the course of four years, I earned my PhD by developing a new power converter control strategy, building a power converter to test it, while also working (separately) for MISO as a consultant on a project to scope both the cost and technical feasibility of a coast-to-coast 15GW macro-grid.
What are some key drivers that have motivated you in your academic and professional life? All throughout my career, I have taken an active interest in developing new solutions to help my colleagues work more efficiently. From an automatic simulation submission systems, to a lab-based automated data generation and jitter analysis scripts, these tools are used even today by my former colleagues. I love to extend my knowledge into new areas to develop solutions that help my teams solve problems, both current and in the future.
When you were hired as a teaching faculty, your primary charge was to innovate and update ECE’s lab curricula. Tell us about your work in the area. I have been working over the past four years to update our ECE lab curricula based on both, the teaching of fundamental concepts and by providing open-ended student-defined projects within our courses. Each of the early weekly labs are tied to specific learning objectives. Those are followed by intermediate or final projects that allow students to address areas that interest them, but still meet specific course requirements and more importantly, tight deadlines. These final projects span the entirety of our student experience here in ECE with at least one hands-on lab-based project each year. So far this includes the freshman Internet of Things showcase, sophomore low-level device API development for microcontrollers, junior design project, and the ECE senior design show.
Farmington High School’s FIRST Robotics team was recently in the news for a wheelchair the students built for 2-year old Cillian Jackson, who has mobility issues. You are a mentor for the team. How did you get involved with FIRST? I was introduced to FIRST by my eldest daughter, Siri. At the time she joined the Robotics Club in high school, I had no idea what FIRST was and didn’t coach that season. I simply showed up to support my daughter in the competition held at Williams Arena on campus and was blown away by the 2000-plus competing-cheering-helping-building teenagers inspired by technology. I knew immediately that this was something I wanted to help grow.
How did the mobility device project for Cilliam Jackson come about? And how did the team handle it? The entire opportunity was an amazing experience. Late last November, I received a text message from the team’s head coach that a family had reached out for help to build a mobility device for their 2-year old son. In less than two days, putting on hold a couple of pre-season training events, we pulled together a plan, and a schedule, and had both students and mentors signed up to contribute to the project. Over the course of the next three weeks, there were several ups and down, as well as late nights, but we finished it just in time for Christmas!
How long have you been engaged with the Farmington team? And what are some of your responsibilities? I have been a mentor for Farmington’s FIRST robotics team, Rogue Robotics, for 6 seasons now. I am the lead programming mentor for the team and my primary responsibilities include teaching high school students how to program in C++, and develop control systems for the robot including Robot Vision and PID systems. I also play a primary role in the Aesthetics Team, which develops our LED-based cheering signs and robot bling. I am the most senior non-teacher mentor on the team and organize many of our non-school-based events, including student leadership lessons learned meetings, mentor season review meetings, conference attendance, and student summer projects.
What are some key highlights of working with the team? I love that FIRST and Rogue Robotics provide students with both, the opportunity to learn new science and engineering skills, as well as the places to apply those skills to solve real problems. This includes obviously, doing the work to solve a problem, but more importantly, setting tight deadlines such that you must negotiate compromises among competing needs such as power, weight, complexity, time, etc. in order to be successful. Another part of the experience that I highly value is that students on the team have always jumped at the opportunity to help others, whether that is through a Feed My Starving Children outing, cleaning up a park, or building a wheelchair for a 2-year old boy. To have students who ask to be taught, and then push to do more with those skills every week provides me with an incredible amount of energy.
What are some other volunteer opportunities you have previously engaged in, or are currently involved with? I volunteer as an instructor with University on the Prairie, a three day University of Minnesota outreach event for students entering grades seven through eleven in rural Lamberton, Minnesota. Using active and experiential learning techniques, I teach students engineering topics such as soldering, electronics, and programming. At the end of the course, students take home a project (solar powered blinking owl, and 3D printed solar tracking servo motor) they have built over the three days.
I am also currently working on projects that will expand the teaching of programming to high school students, both through FIRST and hopefully as a College in the Schools (CIS) course.
How does your work in ECE connect with your mentoring activities? And does work in one area help trigger ideas, teaching/coaching methods, or learning outcomes in the other? My work in ECE is focused on undergraduate education and the work I do in FIRST influences my teaching every day. For instance, I learned to teach closed-loop control to high school students, without advanced math, and in doing so developed robust analogies and real-world examples. I use these analogies and examples in my teaching at the sophomore and junior levels in the department to illustrate the implications of complex mathematical theories.
Seeing the work ethic, strength, and ingenuity of the FIRST Robotics students inspires me to expect more from our students. And my University students always inspire me with how far they can reach, from the EE 1301 students with no previous coding experience to students, in the very same class who come in with ten years of real-world coding experience. An instructor just has to ask, and our students will rise to the challenge. The CSE 1012 and EE 1301 project showcases are examples of the heights to which our students are capable of soaring.
What advice do you have for students interested in robotics ? As students, you will need to develop strong fundamentals through your math and science courses, and through your ECE-centered theory courses. Regularly applying these theory skills in real-world environments and projects is critical to understanding which effects are important and which can be safely ignored or need to be bent. Learning to be a good engineer requires technical skills, but engineers who learn to work with others in spite of conflict, learn how to help others succeed, and learn to communicate to non-engineers, are the ones who will really succeed.
What is ECE’s role in your expanding portfolio of responsibilities? My volunteer efforts are enabled by the department’s support of volunteer and outreach efforts as part of my appointment and through their financial donations to University on the Prairie and the Solar Vehicle Project. This support allows me to be involved at the level I am. The University and the department’s support is critical to the success of my volunteer efforts, and for that I am very grateful.
Acknowledgements to Go Baby Go, and FIRST
Rogue Robotics credits the GoBabyGo program at the University of Delaware for providing technical help as they worked on the device for Cilian, and FIRST for opportunities and inspiration along the way.
Prof. Harjani and his group has been awarded the 2018 European Solid-State Circuit Conference (ESSCIRC) Best Paper Award. ESSCIRC is the premier European conference in Integrated Circuit (IC) design. The paper was co-authored by PhD students Naser Mousavi, Zhiheng Wang, and Professor Harjani. The paper was presented at the 2018 European Solid State Circuits Conference held on September 2018 in Dresden, Germany. The research was funded under the DARPA SPAR program.
ESSCIRC is the premier European Conference in Integrated Circuit (IC) designand the award-winning paper was presented at the European Solid State Circuits Conference held in September 2018 in Dresden, Germany. The research was funded under the DARPA SPAR program. One of the co-authors Naser Mousavi has since graduated with his doctoral degree.
Prof. Harjani and members of his team on their research